Volume 8, Issue 2 (6-2023)                   IJREE 2023, 8(2): 14-29 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Khomejani Farahan A, Rezaee A A, WANG W. The Relationship between L2 Motivational Self-system and Willingness to Communicate: The Mediating Effect of L2 Anxiety in the Chinese EFL Context. IJREE 2023; 8 (2)
URL: http://ijreeonline.com/article-1-762-en.html
Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literatures, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (1023 Views)
The current study used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) as a statistical technique to test a hypothesized mediating model to uncover the underlying relationship between the L2 motivational self-system, L2 anxiety, and L2 willingness to communicate (L2 WTC). This study is significant because it considers the unique experiences of English as a foreign language (EFL) learner in the era of globalization by incorporating the L2 motivational self-system. The mediating effect of L2 anxiety was also accounted for, providing a deeper understanding of how emotional factors influence L2 WTC. The data were collected through a questionnaire administered to 260 students at six public universities in China. The results showed that (a) two subcomponents of the L2 motivational self-system (ideal L2 self and L2 learning experience) were positive predictors to L2 WTC; (b) the higher the degree to which learners were motivated by their ought-to L2 self, the higher the anxiety of English learning; and (c) L2 anxiety had a suppressing effect between the L2 motivational self-system and L2 WTC. Specifically, L2 anxiety weakens the direct positive effect of the L2 motivational self-system on L2 WTC, leading to a decrease in L2 WTC. Pedagogical implications and future research directions were also addressed.
 
Full-Text [PDF 1060 kb]   (268 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special

References
1. Alimorad, Z., & Adib, F. (2022). The effects of pronunciation anxiety and pronunciation motivation on EFL learners' L2 WTC. GIST-Education and Learning Research Journal, 25, 42-63. [DOI:10.26817/16925777.1369]
2. Altiner, C. (2022). Effect of classroom environment on Turkish EFL learners' willingness to communicate. Pesa Uluslararası Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, 8(3), 130-140. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/pesausad/issue/73629/1173685
3. Baker, S. C., & MacIntyre, P. D. (2003). The role of gender and immersion in communication and second language orientations. Language Learning, 53(S1), 65-96. [DOI:10.1111/0023-8333.00224]
4. Bong, M., & Skaalvik, E. M. (2003). Academic self-concept and self-efficacy: How different are they really? Educational Psychology Review, 15, 1-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021302408382 [DOI:10.1023/A:1021302408382]
5. Byrne, B. M. (1994). Structural equation modeling with eqs and eqs/windows: basic concepts, applications, and programming. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A (Statistics in Society), 159(2).
6. Chen, Y. (2019). L2 motivational self-system, self-efficacy, language anxiety and motivated oral participation in class. Foreign Language Research, (1), 63-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.16263/j.cnki.23-1071/h.2019.01.011
7. Chen, Y. (2022). A study on interrelations between Chinese EFL undergraduates' willingness to communicate in English, foreign language anxiety and teacher immediacy. Journal of Chaohu University, (06), 143-150.
8. Csizér, K., & Kormos, J. (2009). Learning experiences, selves and motivated learning behavior: A comparative analysis of structural models for Hungarian secondary and university learners of English. Motivation, Language Identity and the L2 Self, 36, 98-119. https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.21832/9781847691293-006/html?lang=en [DOI:10.21832/9781847691293-006]
9. Darling, W. E., & Chanyoo, N. (2018). Relationships of L2 motivational self-system components and willingness to communicate in English among Thai undergraduate students. NIDA Journal of Language and Communication, 23(33), 1-22. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Will-Darling/publication/328757660_Relationships_of_L2_Motivational_Self-System_Components_and_Willingness_to_Communicate_in_English_among_Thai_Undergraduate_Students/links/5be0fd5692851c6b27aa2264/Relationships-of-L2-Motivational-Self-System-Components-and-Willingness-to-Communicate-in-English-among-Thai-Undergraduate-Students.pdf
10. Darvin, R., & Norton, B. (2015). Identity and a model of investment in applied linguistics. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 35, 36-56. doi: [DOI:10.1017/S0267190514000191]
11. Denies, K., Yashima, T., & Janssen, R. (2015). Classroom versus societal willingness to communicate: Investigating French as a second language in Flanders. The Modern Language Journal, 99(4), 718-739. [DOI:10.1111/modl.12276]
12. Donovan, L. A., & MacIntyre, P. D. (2004). Age and sex differences in willingness to communicate, communication apprehension, and self‐perceived competence. Communication Research Reports, 21(4), 420-427. [DOI:10.1080/08824090409360006]
13. Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition (1st ed.). New York: Routledge. [DOI:10.4324/9781410613349]
14. Dörnyei, Z. (2009). The psychology of second language acquisition. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
15. Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (2013). Teaching and researching: Motivation. New York: Routledge. [DOI:10.4324/9781315833750]
16. Gardner, R. C. (2001). Integrative motivation and second language acquisition. In Z. Dörnyei, & R. Schmidt (Eds.), Motivation and second language acquisition (pp. 1-19). Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press.
17. Gregersen, T., & Horwitz, E. K. (2002). Language learning and perfectionism: Anxious and non‐anxious language learners' reactions to their own oral performance. The Modern Language Journal, 86(4), 562-570. [DOI:10.1111/1540-4781.00161]
18. Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94(3), 319-340. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.94.3.319 [DOI:10.1037/0033-295X.94.3.319]
19. Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125-132. [DOI:10.1111/j.1540-4781.1986.tb05256.x]
20. Kang, S. J. (2005). Dynamic emergence of situational willingness to communicate in a second language. System, 33(2), 277-292. doi:10.1016/j.system.2004.10.004 [DOI:10.1016/j.system.2004.10.004]
21. Khajavy, G. H., Ghonsooly, B., Hosseini Fatemi, A., & Choi, C. W. (2016). Willingness to communicate in English: A microsystem model in the Iranian EFL classroom context. TESOL Quarterly, 50(1), 154-180. [DOI:10.1002/tesq.204]
22. Kim, T. Y., & Choi, E. Y. (2023). English learning anxiety and English learning demotivation in South Korean third-year high school students. Porta Linguarum: revista internacional de didáctica de las lenguas extranjeras, (39), 75-91. doi:10.30827/portalin.vi39.22305 [DOI:10.30827/portalin.vi39.22305]
23. Lamb, M. (2004). Integrative motivation in a globalizing world. System, 32(1), 3-19. [DOI:10.1016/j.system.2003.04.002]
24. Lanvers, U. (2016). Lots of selves, some rebellious: Developing the self-discrepancy model for language learners. System, 60, 79-92. [DOI:10.1016/j.system.2016.05.012]
25. Lee, J. S., & Hsieh, J. C. (2019). Affective variables and willingness to communicate of EFL learners in in-class, out-of-class, and digital contexts. System, 82, 63-73. [DOI:10.1016/j.system.2019.03.002]
26. Lee, J. S., & Lee, K. (2020). Role of L2 motivational self-system on willingness to communicate of Korean EFL university and secondary students. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 49(2), 147-161. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336585571_Role_of_L2_Motivational_Self_System_on_Willingness_to_Communicate_of_Korean_EFL_University_and_Secondary_Students [DOI:10.1007/s10936-019-09675-6]
27. Li, C., Dewaele, J., & Jiang, G. (2020). The complex relationship between classroom emotions and EFL achievement in China. Applied Linguistics Review, 11(3), 485-510. [DOI:10.1515/applirev-2018-0043]
28. Li, C. C., & Han, Y. (2022). The predictive effects of foreign language enjoyment, anxiety, and boredom on learning outcomes in online English classrooms. Front. Psychol. 13:1050226. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.1050226 [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2022.1050226]
29. MacIntyre, P. (2020). Expanding the theoretical base for the dynamics of willingness to communicate. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 10(1), 111-131. [DOI:10.14746/ssllt.2020.10.1.6]
30. MacIntyre, P. D., Baker, S. C., Clément, R., & Donovan, L. A. (2003). Sex and age effects on willingness to communicate, anxiety, perceived competence, and L2 motivation among junior high school French immersion students. Language Learning, 53(S1), 137-166. [DOI:10.1111/1467-9922.00226]
31. MacIntyre, P. D., & Charos, C. (1996). Personality, attitudes, and affect as predictors of second language communication. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 15(1), 3-26. doi:10.1177/0261927X960151001 [DOI:10.1177/0261927X960151001]
32. MacIntyre, P. D., Clément, R., Dörnyei, Z., & Noels, K. A. (1998). Conceptualizing willingness to communicate in a L2: A situational model of L2 confidence and affiliation. The Modern Language Journal, 82(4), 545-562. [DOI:10.1111/j.1540-4781.1998.tb05543.x]
33. MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1991). Methods and results in the study of anxiety and language learning: A review of the literature. Language Learning, 41(1), 85-117. [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-1770.1991.tb00677.x]
34. Markus, H., & Nurius, P. (1986). Possible selves. American Psychologist, 41(9), 954-969. [DOI:10.1037/0003-066X.41.9.954]
35. Matsuda, A. (Ed.). (2017). Preparing teachers to teach English as an international language (Vol. 53). Multilingual Matters. https://www.amazon.com/Preparing-Teachers-International-PERSPECTIVES-EDUCATION/dp/1783097019 [DOI:10.21832/9781783097036]
36. McCroskey, J. C., & Baer, J. E. (1985). Willingness to communicate: The construct and its measurement. Paper Presented at the Annual Convention of the Speech Communication Association. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED265604.pdf
37. Mystkowska-Wiertelak, A. (2016). Dynamics of classroom WTC: Results of a semester study. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 6(4), 651-676. [DOI:10.14746/ssllt.2016.6.4.5]
38. Norton, B. (2001). Non-participation, imagined communities, and the language classroom. In: M. Breen (Ed.), Learner contributions to language learning: New directions in research (pp. 159-71). Harlow: Pearson Education.
39. Oyserman, D., & Fryberg, S. A. (2006). The possible selves of diverse adolescents: Content and function across gender, race and national origin.17-39. https://dornsife.usc.edu/assets/sites/782/docs/oyserman-proof_1_.pdf
40. Öz, H., & Bursalı, N. (2018). The relationship between L2 motivational self-system and willingness to communicate in learning English as a foreign language. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 14(4), 1-11. https://www.jlls.org/index.php/jlls/article/view/980
41. Papi, M. (2010). The L2 motivational self-system, L2 anxiety, and motivated behavior: A structural equation modeling approach. System, 38(3), 467-479. [DOI:10.1016/j.system.2010.06.011]
42. Papi, M., & Abdollahzadeh, E. (2012). Teacher motivational practice, student motivation, and possible L2 selves: An examination in the Iranian EFL context. Language Learning, 62(2), 571-594. [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9922.2011.00632.x]
43. Papi, M., Bondarenko, A. V., Mansouri, S., Feng, L., & Jiang, C. (2019). Rethinking L2 motivation research: The 2× 2 model of L2 self-guides. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 41(2), 337-361. [DOI:10.1017/S0272263118000153]
44. Papi, M., & Khajavy, G. H. (2021). Motivational mechanisms underlying second language achievement: A regulatory focus perspective. Language Learning, 71(2), 537-572. [DOI:10.1111/lang.12443]
45. Papi, M., & Teimouri, Y. (2012). Dynamics of selves and motivation: a cross‐sectional study in the EFL context of Iran. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 22(3), 287-309. [DOI:10.1111/j.1473-4192.2012.00312.x]
46. Peng, J. E. (2012). Towards an ecological understanding of willingness to communicate in EFL classrooms in China. System, 40(2), 203-213. [DOI:10.1016/j.system.2012.02.002]
47. Peng, J. E. (2019). The roles of multimodal pedagogic effects and classroom environment in willingness to communicate in English. System, 82, 161-173. [DOI:10.1016/j.system.2019.04.006]
48. Peng, J. E., & Woodrow, L. (2010). Willingness to communicate in English: A model in the Chinese EFL classroom context. Language Learning, 60(4), 834-876. [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9922.2010.00576.x]
49. Ryan, S. (2009). Self and identity in L2 motivation in Japan: The ideal L2 self and Japanese learners of English. In Z. Dörnyei, & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 120-143). Bristol, England: Multilingual Matters. [DOI:10.21832/9781847691293-007]
50. Sabzalipour, B., Shafiee, S., & Ashtari, A. (2021). EFL teachers' behavior: Effects on Iranian intermediate EFL learners' willingness to communicate in English. IJREE, 6(3), 41-59. http://ijreeonline.com/article-1-526-en.html [DOI:10.52547/ijree.6.3.41]
51. Sadoughi, M., & Hejazi, S. Y. (2023). How can L2 motivational self-system enhance willingness to communicate? The contribution of foreign language enjoyment and anxiety. Current Psychology, 1-13. [DOI:10.1007/s12144-023-04479-3]
52. Safdari, S. (2019). Imagination, senses and motivation: How are sensory styles, imagery capacity and gender related to motivational attributes of Iranian EFL learners? Issues in Language Teaching, 8(2), 275-303. [DOI:10.22054/ilt.2020.48725.457]
53. Skehan, P. (1989). Individual indifferences in second language learning. London: Edward Arnold. [DOI:10.1017/S0272263100009979]
54. Song, L., Luo, R., & Zhan, Q. (2022). Toward the role of teacher caring and teacher-student rapport in predicting English as a foreign language learners' willingness to communicate in second language. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 1-8. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2022.874522]
55. Taguchi, T., Magid, M., & Papi, M. (2009). The L2 motivational self-system among Japanese, Chinese and Iranian learners of English: A comparative study. Motivation, Language Identity and the L2 Self, 36, 66-97. [DOI:10.21832/9781847691293-005]
56. Tahmouresi, S., & Papi, M. (2021). Future selves, enjoyment and anxiety as predictors of L2 writing achievement. Journal of Second Language Writing, 53, 1-14. [DOI:10.1016/j.jslw.2021.100837]
57. Teimouri, Y., Goetze, J., & Plonsky, L. (2019). Second language anxiety and achievement: A meta-analysis. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 41(2), 363-387. [DOI:10.1017/S0272263118000311]
58. Ushioda, E. (2006). Language motivation in a reconfigured Europe: Access, identity, autonomy. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 27(2), 148-161. [DOI:10.1080/01434630608668545]
59. Wang, H., Peng, A., & Patterson, M. M. (2021). The roles of class social climate, language mindset, and emotions in predicting willingness to communicate in a foreign language. System, 99, 102529. [DOI:10.1016/j.system.2021.102529]
60. Welesilassie, M. W., & Nikolov, M. (2022). Relationships between motivation and anxiety in adult EFL learners at an Ethiopian university. Ampersand, 9, 1-10. [DOI:10.1016/j.amper.2022.100089]
61. Yashima, T. (2000). Orientations and motivation in foreign language learning: A study of Japanese college students. JACET Bulletin, 31(1), 121-133. http://kuir.jm.kansai-u.ac.jp/dspace/handle/10112/6873
62. Zarei, N., Saeidi, M., & Ahangari, S. (2019). Exploring EFL teachers' socio-affective and pedagogic strategies and students' willingness to communicate with a focus on Iranian culture. Education Research International, 1-11. [DOI:10.1155/2019/3464163]
63. Zhou, C. (2022). The relationship between Chinese EFL learners' l2 motivational self-system and willingness to communicate. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 12(11), 2374-2380. doi: [DOI:10.17507/tpls.1211.18]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2023 CC BY-NC 4.0 | International Journal of Research in English Education

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb