Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2024)                   IJREE 2024, 9(2): 73-88 | Back to browse issues page

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Karimi S, Khazaee H. The Comparative Effect of Illustration-Interaction-Induction (III) and Present-Practice-Produce (PPP) Approaches on the Frequency of Use of Discourse Markers Among Iranian EFL Learners in State High Schools. IJREE 2024; 9 (2)
URL: http://ijreeonline.com/article-1-876-en.html
Department of English Language Translation, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran
Abstract:   (328 Views)
Discourse markers (DMs) play a significant role in both written and spoken language since they function as coherent devices, offering cues and guidance for the understanding of the reader or listener. The frequency of DMs in a language may have a substantial influence on an individual’s competency and overall English abilities. With an increased frequency of using these markers, individuals enhance their ability to form cohesive and logical sentences, hence improving their proficiency as speakers or writers. The goal of this study is to compare how the illustration-interaction-induction (III) and present-practice-produce (PPP) approaches affect the frequency of DMs in the expository writing of Iranian high school students. The study involved a sample of 30 intermediate Iranian EFL learners enrolled in state high schools in the city of Kelachay, Guilan, Iran. The research was conducted across three settings, namely pre-test, treatment, and post-test. Participants were asked to write an expository paragraph as part of the pre-test. During the treatment phase, after the instruction of the DMs using the PPP approach, the participants were asked to write a second expository paragraph. Following the implementation of the III approach as the second intervention phase in the study, the subsequent post-test was conducted, wherein participants were asked to compose one additional paragraph. The three sets of paragraphs were compiled into three learner corpora and analyzed to determine the frequency of DMs. The log-likelihood and effect size calculators demonstrated the superiority of the III approach in terms of the frequency of DMs used in the expository paragraphs of Iranian EFL learners in state high schools. The findings provided robust support for the efficacy of the III approach in the context of teaching DMs. 

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