Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2020)                   IJREE 2020, 5(4): 41-60 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Rahimi S, Rezaee A. Obstacles Inhibiting Iranian EFL Teachers’ Implementation of Task-Based Instruction. IJREE. 2020; 5 (4)
URL: http://ijreeonline.com/article-1-415-en.html
Aatollah Ozma Burojerdi University
Abstract:   (524 Views)
Although Task-Based Instruction (TBI) has received large attention on the part of English practitioners throughout the world, it seems that there is yet a huge gap between the Iranian EFL teachers’ perceptions and practices in implementing it in real classes. Hence, this study set out to unearth the possible sources of difficulties in using TBI in EFL classes. To meet the goals, a total of 120 male and female EFL teachers were selected through stratified random sampling from Iran language institute (ILI) branches in Tehran, Iran. After critically reviewing the literature and using a flow chart technique, a questionnaire including 20 items was developed, piloted, and distributed among the participants. Then, the collected data were analyzed through the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Results indicated that three main factors, namely lack of appropriate assessment methods, cultural difference, and efficacy of the method received the utmost significance from the EFL teachers’ perspectives that have led to not using TBI. In the end, the implications of the findings were discussed for different stakeholders.  
Full-Text [PDF 651 kb]   (74 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special

References
1. Amini, S., Mahmoudi Langarani, F., & Hedayat, B. (2019). Exploring Iranian EFL teachers' perspectives on task-based language teaching. International Journal of Research in English Education, 4(4), 30-42. http://ijreeonline.com/article-1-242-en.html [DOI:10.29252/ijree.4.4.30]
2. Acar, M., & Anil, D. (2009). Sınıf ogretmenlerinin performans değerlendirme surecindeki degerlendirme yontemlerini kullanabilme yeterlikleri, karsılastıkları sorunlar ve cozum onerileri. TÜBAV Bilim Dergisi, 2(3), 354-363.
3. Ahmad, S., & Rao, C. (2012). Does it work: implementing communicative language teaching approach in an EFL context. Journal of Education and Practice, 3(12), 32-43. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301338339_Does_it_Work_Implementing_Communicative_Language_Teaching_Approach_in_EFL_Context
4. Akbari, R., Kiany, G. R., Imani Naeeni, M., & Karimi Allvar, N. (2008). Teachers' teaching styles, sense of efficacy, and reflectivity as correlates of students' achievement outcomes. Iranian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 11(1), 1-28. https://ijal.khu.ac.ir/article-1-70-fa.html
5. Azari Noughabi, M. (2017). Current pedagogical challenges in Iranian EFL teachers' views: A qualitative study. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(9), 217-228. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1138823
6. Bachman, L. (2002). Some reflections on task-based language performance assessment. Language Testing, 19(4), 453-476. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/249870181_Some_Reflections_on_Task-Based_Language_Performance_Assessment [DOI:10.1191/0265532202lt240oa]
7. Beretta, A. (1990). Implementation of the Bangalore project. Applied Linguistics, 11(4), 321-337. [DOI:10.1093/applin/11.4.321]
8. Brown, H. D., & Abeywickrama, P. (2010). Language assessment: Principles and classroom practices (2nd ed.). New York: Pearson Education.
9. Brown, J. D., & Hudson, T. (1998). The alternatives in language assessment. TESOL Quarterly, 32(4), 653-675. [DOI:10.2307/3587999]
10. Carless, D. (2003). Factors in the implementation of task-Based teaching in primary school. System, 31(4), 485-500. [DOI:10.1016/j.system.2003.03.002]
11. Carless, D. (2007). The suitability of task-based approaches for secondary schools: Perspectives from Hong Kong. System, 35(4), 595-608. [DOI:10.1016/j.system.2007.09.003]
12. Chowdhury, M. R. (2003). International TESOL training and EFL contexts: The cultural disillusionment factor. Australian Journal of Education, 47(3), 283-302. [DOI:10.1177/000494410304700307]
13. Çiftçi, S. (2010). İlköğretim birinci kademe 4. ve 5. sınıf öğretmenlerinin performans görevlerine iliskin görüşleri. İlköğretim Online, 9(3), 935-951. https://atif.sobiad.com/index.jsp?modul=makale-detay&Alan=sosyal&Id=AWXw21rPHDbCZb_mQxep
14. Clark, J., Lo, Y. C., Hui, M. F., Kam, M., Carless, D., & Wong, P. M. (1999). An investigation into the development and implementation of the TOC initiative with special reference to professional competencies, professional development and resources: Final report. Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong.
15. Dewey, J. (1910). How we think. Boston: D.C. Heath. [DOI:10.1037/10903-000]
16. Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language teaching and learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
17. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Seabury Press.
18. Higgs, T., & Clifford, R. (1982). The push towards communication. In T. Higgs (ed.), Curriculum, competence, and the foreign language Teacher (pp: 57-79). Skokie, IL: National Textbook Company.
19. Hird, B. (1995). How communicative can language teaching be in China? Prospect, 10(3), 21-7. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ529547
20. Holliday, A. (1994). The house of TESEP and the communicative approach: The special needs of English language education. ELT Journal, 48(1), 3-11. https://academic.oup.com/eltj/article-abstract/48/1/3/2726117?redirectedFrom=fulltext [DOI:10.1093/elt/48.1.3]
21. Jeon, I., & Hahn, J. (2006). Exploring EFL teachers' perceptions of task-based language teaching: A case study of Korean secondary school classroom practice. The Asian EFL Journal Quarterly, 8(1), 123-143. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/255594998_Exploring_EFL_Teachers%27_Perceptions_of_Task-Based_Language_Teaching_A_Case_Study_of_Korean_Secondary_School_Classroom_Practice
22. Ji, Y. (2017). Task-based language teaching (TBLT) in Asian EFL classes: Challenges and strategies. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 120(4), 152-164.
23. Karavas-Doukas, E. (1995). Teacher identified factors affecting the implementation of an EFL innovation in Greek public secondary schools. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 8(1), 53-68. [DOI:10.1080/07908319509525188]
24. Kumaeavadivelu, B. (2012). Individual identity, cultural globalization, and teaching English as an international language: The case for an epistemic break. In L. Alsagoff, W. Renandya, G. Hu, & S. McKay (eds.), Principles and practices for teaching as an international language (pp: 9-27). New York: Routledge.
25. Lantolf, J. (Ed.). (2000). Sociocultural theory and second language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
26. Leaver, B. L., & Kaplan, M. A. (2004). Task-based instruction in the U.S. Government Slavic language programs. In B. L. Leaver & J. Willis (Eds.), Task-based instruction in foreign language education: Practices and programs (pp. 47-66). Washington, D. C.: Georg town University Press.
27. Li, D. (1998). It's always more difficult than you plan and imagine: Teachers' perceived difficulties in introducing the communicative approach in South Korea. TESOL Quarterly, 32(4), 677-703. [DOI:10.2307/3588000]
28. MacCallum, R. C., Browne, M. W., & Sugawara, H. M. (1996). Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods, 1(2), 130-149. [DOI:10.1037/1082-989X.1.2.130]
29. Mahdavirad, F. (2017). Task-based language teaching in Iran: A study of EFL teachers' perspectives. International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies, 5(4), 14-22. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323202839_Task-Based_Language_Teaching_in_Iran_A_Study_of_EFL_Teachers%27_Perspectives
30. Marckwardt, A. (1972). Changing winds and shifting sands. MST English Quarterly, 21, 3-11.
31. Mostafaee, M., & Estaji, M (2018). Teaching English language in schools: Dos and don'ts/ Interviewer: IRNA [Transcript]. https://www.irna.ir/fa/news/82831555
32. Nunan, D. (2003). The impact of English as global language on educational policies and practices in the Asia-Pacific region. TESOL Quarterly, 37(4), 589-613. [DOI:10.2307/3588214]
33. Nunan, D. (2004). Task-based language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [DOI:10.1017/CBO9780511667336]
34. Ogilvie, G., & Dunn, W. (2010). Talking teacher education to task: Exploring the role of teacher education in promoting the utilization of task-based language teaching. Language Teaching Research, 14(2), 161-181. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258169922_Taking_teacher_education_to_task_Exploring_the_role_of_teacher_education_in_promoting_the_utilization_of_task-based_language_teaching [DOI:10.1177/1362168809353875]
35. Pica, T. (1998). Communicative language teaching: En aid to second language acquisition? Some insights from classroom research. English Quarterly, 21(2), 70-80. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ378667
36. Prabhu, N. S. (1987). Second language pedagogy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
37. Richards, J. C. (2011). Classroom observation in teaching practice. In J. C. Richards & T. S. C. Farrell (Eds.), Practice teaching: A reflective approach (pp. 90-106). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [DOI:10.1017/CBO9781139151535]
38. Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (2014). Approaches and methods in language teaching (3rd ed). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
39. Robinson, P., & Ross, S. (1996). The development of task-based assessment in English for academic purposes. Applied Linguistics, 17(4), 455-476. [DOI:10.1093/applin/17.4.455]
40. Rodgers, C. (1983). Freedom to learn for the eighties. Colombus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.
41. Shehadeh, A. (2005). Task-based language learning and teaching: Theories and applications. In C. Edwards & J. Willis (Eds.), Teachers exploring tasks in English language teaching (pp. 13-30). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. [DOI:10.1057/9780230522961_2]
42. Skehan, P. (1996). A framework for the implementation of task-based instruction. Applied Linguistics, 17(1), 38-61. [DOI:10.1093/applin/17.1.38]
43. Skehan, P. (1998). A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [DOI:10.1177/003368829802900209]
44. Swan, M. (1985). A critical look at the communicative approach. English Language Teaching Journal, 39(1), 2-12. [DOI:10.1093/elt/39.1.2]
45. Tan, Z. (2016). Benefits and implementation challenges of Task-based language teaching in the Chinese EFL context. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, 4(3), 1-8.
46. Van den Branden, K. (2012). Task-based language education. In A. Burns & J. C. Richards (Eds.), The Cambridge guide to pedagogy and practice in second language teaching (pp. 132-139). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
47. Van Le, T. (2014). Factors affecting task-based language teaching from teachers' perspectives. Study in English Language Teaching, 2(1), 108-122. http://www.scholink.org/ojs/index.php/selt/article/view/162 [DOI:10.22158/selt.v2n1p108]
48. Wang, W., & Lam, A. (2009). The English language curriculum for secondary schools in China: its evolution from 1949. RELC Journal, 40(1), 65-82. doi: 10.1177/0033688208101447 [DOI:10.1177/0033688208101447]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


© 2021 All Rights Reserved | International Journal of Research in English Education

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb