Volume 7, Issue 2 (6-2022)                   IJREE 2022, 7(2): 1-21 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Nameni A, Dowlatabadi H, Mohammadi A M. Ethnocentrism and Investment in Learning English in Multicultural English Classrooms: A Study of Iranian Medical Students. IJREE. 2022; 7 (2)
URL: http://ijreeonline.com/article-1-653-en.html
Department of English Language and Literature, Arak University
Abstract:   (768 Views)
Medical practitioners’ ethnocentric orientations and English language skills contribute to the success or failure of intercultural communication in the context of health care. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between ethnocentrism and investment in learning English in the multicultural setting of English classrooms at an Iranian medical university. To this end, 200 Iranian medical students’ levels of ethnocentrism and investment in learning English were measured. The findings of this study revealed that the participants had relatively moderate levels of ethnocentrism and investment, and there was a strong negative relationship between the two constructs. Female medical students were found to be significantly less ethnocentric than male students, but were not significantly different from them in terms of investment. These findings were explained considering several contextual factors such as the participants’ linguistic loyalty, intercultural contact, and social comfort in English classrooms. Practical implications, direction, and limitations are discussed.


 
Full-Text [PDF 647 kb]   (132 Downloads)    


Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special

References
1. Aghagolzadeh, F., & Davari, H. (2012). The rationale for applying critical pedagogy in expanding circle countries: The case of Iran. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 3(5), 973-980. doi:10.4304/jltr.3.5.973-980 [DOI:10.4304/jltr.3.5.973-980]
2. Aghagolzadeh, F., & Davari, H. (2014). Iranian critical ELT: A belated but growing intellectual shift in Iranian ELT community. Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, 14(1), 391-410. http://www.jceps.com/wp-content/uploads/PDFs/12-1-15.pdf
3. Akbari, R. (2008). Transforming lives: introducing critical pedagogy into ELT classrooms. ELT Journal, 62(3), 276-283. [DOI:10.1093/elt/ccn025]
4. Akhbari, M., & Zolfeghari, H. (2009). A geopolitical analysis of ethnicity in Iran, with an emphasis on challenges and opportunities. Geopolitics Quarterly, 5(16), 45-69. http://journal.iag.ir/article_56968.html?lang=en
5. Allport, G. W. (1958). The nature of prejudice: Abridged. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
6. Anand, R., & Lahiri, I. (2009). Intercultural competence in health care- developing skills for interculturally competent care. In D. K. Deardorff (Ed.), The SAGE handbook of intercultural competence (pp. 387-402). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. [DOI:10.4135/9781071872987.n23]
7. Andrews, M. (1992). Cultural perspectives on nursing in the 21st century. Journal of Professional Nursing, 8(1), 7-15. [DOI:10.1016/8755-7223(92)90112-C]
8. Arasaratnam, L. A., & Banerjee, S. C. (2007). Ethnocentrism and sensation seeking as variables that influence intercultural contact-seeking behavior: A path analysis. Communication Research Reports, 24(4), 303-310. doi:10.1080/08824090701624197 [DOI:10.1080/08824090701624197]
9. Asgharzadeh, A. (2007). Iran and the challenge of diversity: Islamic fundamentalism, Aryanist racism, and democratic struggles. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. [DOI:10.1057/9780230604889]
10. Baghbanian, A., Safdari, R., Erfannia, L., & Zokaee, M. (2021). The medical tourism industry in Iran: A review of websites designed for cross-border patients. Health Scope, 10(1), e108482. doi: 10.5812/jhealthscope.108482 [DOI:10.5812/jhealthscope.108482]
11. Bem, S. L. (1981). Gender schema theory: A cognitive account of sex typing. Psychological Review, 88(4), 354-364. [DOI:10.1037/0033-295X.88.4.354]
12. Berger, M. (2021, August 7). Bill to restrict internet in Iran could threaten pandemic-era Instagram commerce boom. The Washington Post. http://www. Washingtonpost.com/world/2021/08/07/iran-instagram-pandemic-economy-ban/
13. Bernstein, R., & Salipante, P. (2017). Intercultural comfort through social practices: Exploring conditions for cultural learning. Frontiers in Education, 2. [DOI:10.3389/feduc.2017.00031]
14. Betancourt, J. R. (2006). Cultural competence and medical education: many names, many perspectives, one goal. Academic medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 81(6), 499-501. doi: 10.1097/01.ACM.0000225211.77088.cb [DOI:10.1097/01.ACM.0000225211.77088.cb]
15. Binder, J., Zagefka, H., Brown, R., Funke, F., Kessler, T., Mummendey, A., Maquil, A., Demoulin, S., & Leyens, J. P. (2009). Does contact reduce prejudice or does prejudice reduce contact? A longitudinal test of the contact hypothesis among majority and minority groups in three European countries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(4), 843-856. doi: 10.1037/a0013470 [DOI:10.1037/a0013470]
16. Borjian, M. (2013). English in post-revolutionary Iran: From indigenization to internationalization. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. [DOI:10.21832/9781847699107]
17. Borjian, M. (2015). Bridge or wall? English language in Iran. In N. Wadham-Smith & D. Whitehead (Eds.), Didgah: New perspectives on UK-Iran cultural relations (pp. 201-222). London: British Council.
18. Bowen, K., & Marchant, J. (2015). Internet censorship in Iran: preventative, interceptive, and reactive In B. Robertson & J, Marchant, Revolution decoded: Iran's digital media landscape, (15-28). Small Media. https://smallmedia.org.uk/revolutiondecoded/a/RevolutionDecoded.pdf
19. Bucher, L., Klemm, P., & Adepoju, J. (1996). Fostering cultural competence: A multicultural plan. The Journal of Nursing Education, 35(7), 334-336. [DOI:10.3928/0148-4834-19961001-12]
20. Byram, M. (2008). From foreign language education to education for intercultural citizenship: Essays and reflections. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. [DOI:10.21832/9781847690807]
21. Byram, M., & Feng, A. (2005). Teaching and researching intercultural competence. In E. Hinkel (Ed.) Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 911-930). Oxfordshire, UK: Routledge.
22. Byram, M., & Wagner, M. (2018). Making a difference: Language teaching for intercultural and international dialogue. Foreign Language Annals, 51(1), 140-151. [DOI:10.1111/flan.12319]
23. Campinha-Bacote, J. (2003). Many faces of addressing diversity in health care. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 8(1), 3. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12729453/ [DOI:10.3912/OJIN.Vol8No01Man02]
24. Check, J., & Schutt, R. K. (2012). Research methods in education. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. [DOI:10.4135/9781544307725]
25. Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. London: SAGE.
26. Croucher, S. M. (2013). Integrated threat theory and acceptance of immigrant assimilation: An analysis of Muslim immigration in Western Europe. Communication Monographs, 80(1), 46-62. doi:10.1080/03637751.2012.739704 [DOI:10.1080/03637751.2012.739704]
27. Darvin, R. (2019). L2 motivation and investment. In M. Lamb, K. Csizer, A. Henry, & S. Ryan (Eds.), The Palgrave handbook of motivation for language learning (pp. 245-264). Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-030-28380-3_12]
28. Darvin, R., & Norton, B. (2015). Identity and a model of investment in applied linguistics. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 35, 36-56. doi: [DOI:10.1017/S0267190514000191]
29. Darvin, R., & Norton, B. (2017). Investment and language learning in the 21st century. Langageetsociété, 157(3), 19-38. doi:10.3917/ls.157.0019 [DOI:10.3917/ls.157.0019]
30. Darvin, R., & Norton, B. (2021). Investment and motivation in language learning: What's the difference? Language Teaching, 1-12. doi:10.1017/S0261444821000057 [DOI:10.1017/S0261444821000057]
31. Davari, H., & Aghagolzadeh, F. (2015). To teach or not to teach? Still an open question for the Iranian education system. In C. Kennedy (Ed.) English language teaching in the Islamic Republic of Iran: Innovations, trends and challenges (pp. 13-19). London: British Council.
32. Deardorff, D. K. (2009). The SAGE handbook of intercultural competence. Sage Publishing. [DOI:10.4135/9781071872987]
33. de Moissac, D., & Bowen, S. (2019). Impact of language barriers on quality of care and patient safety for official language minority Francophones in Canada. Journal of Patient Experience, 6(1), 24-32. doi: 10.1177/2374373518769008 [DOI:10.1177/2374373518769008]
34. Derakhshan, A. (2021). Should textbook images be merely decorative? Cultural representations in the Iranian EFL national textbook from the semiotic approach perspective. Language Teaching Research. [DOI:10.1177/1362168821992264]
35. Dixon, J., Durrheim, K., & Tredoux, C. (2005). Beyond the optimal contact strategy: A reality check for the Contact Hypothesis. American Psychologist, 60(7), 697-711. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.60.7.697 [DOI:10.1037/0003-066X.60.7.697]
36. Dorgan, K. A., Lang, F., Floyd, M., & Kemp, E. (2009). International medical graduate-patient communication: a qualitative analysis of perceived barriers. Academic Medicine, 84(11), 1567-1575. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181baf5b1 [DOI:10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181baf5b1]
37. Fantini, A. (2012). Language: An essential component of intercultural communicative competence. In J. Jackson (Ed.), Routledge handbook of language and intercultural communication (pp. 263-278). Abingdon, UK: Routledge Press.
38. Gareis, E. (2017). 21. Intercultural friendship and communication. In L. Chen (Ed.), Intercultural Communication (pp. 457-480). De Gruyter Mouton. [DOI:10.1515/9781501500060-021]
39. Ghanbari Baghestan, A., & Abu Hassan, M. (2010). Iran's media landscape: Law, policy and media freedom. Human Communication. A Publication of the Pacific and Asian Communication Association, 12(3), 239-254. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/242509681_Iran%27s_Media_Landscape_Law_policy_and_media_freedom
40. Gluszek, A., Newheiser, A., & Dovidio, J. F. (2010). Social psychological orientations and accent strength. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 30(1), 28-45. [DOI:10.1177/0261927X10387100]
41. Gudykunst, W. B., & Kim, Y. Y. (2004). Communicating with strangers: An approach to intercultural communication. New York: McGraw-Hill.
42. Haghish, E. F., Heydari, A., Biegler, R. E., Pfuhl, G., & Teymoori, A. (2012). Sociological indicators of ethical attitude toward ethnic humor: An empirical study on Persian jokes. Asian Social Science, 8(13), 9-20. doi: 10.5539/ass.v8n13p9 [DOI:10.5539/ass.v8n13p9]
43. Hall, J. A. (1978). Gender effects in decoding nonverbal cues. Psychological Bulletin, 85(4), 845-857. [DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.85.4.845]
44. Hall, J. A., & Schmid Mast, M. (2008). Are women always more interpersonally sensitive than men? Impact of goals and content domain. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(1), 144-155. [DOI:10.1177/0146167207309192]
45. Harris, S. H., & Cummings, S. H. (1996). Reflections on ethnocentrism and racism: A challenge for advanced practice nurses. Advanced Practice Nursing Quarterly, 2(2), 70-74. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9447077/
46. Heydari, A., Teymoori, A., Haghish, E. F., & Mohamadi, B. (2014). Influential factors on ethnocentrism: The effect of socioeconomic status, anomie, and authoritarianism. Social Science Information, 53(2), 240-254. doi: 10.1177/0539018413517521 [DOI:10.1177/0539018413517521]
47. Hidalgo, M. (1986). Language contact, language loyalty and language prejudice on the Mexican border. Language in Society, 15(2), 193-220. doi:10.1017/S004740450000018X [DOI:10.1017/S004740450000018X]
48. Hofstede Insights. (October 1, 2021). Country Comparison - Iran. https://www.hofstede-insights.com/country-comparison/iran/
49. Hu, Y., & Fan, W. (2011). An exploratory study on intercultural communication research contents and methods: A survey based on the international and domestic journal papers published from 2001 to 2005. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(5), 554-566. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2010.12.004 [DOI:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2010.12.004]
50. Internet World Stats. (2017, December 31). Internet usage, broadband and telecommunications reports. https://www.internetworldstats.com/me/ir.htm
51. Iranmehr, A., & Davari, H. (2017). English language education in Iran: A site of struggle between globalized and localized versions of English. Iranian Journal of Comparative Education, 1(2), 70-84. https://www.sid.ir/en/Journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=734472
52. IRNA, (2015, September 7). تنوع فرهنگی ایران از كل اروپا بیشتر است [Cultural diversity in Iran is bigger that the whole Europe]. Iran Republic News Agency (IRNA). Retrieved from http://irna.ir/news/81750701/تنوع-فرهنگی-ایران-از-كل-اروپا-بیشتر-
53. Jacobs, E. A., & Diamond, L. C. (2017). Providing health care in the context of language barriers. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. [DOI:10.21832/JACOBS7760]
54. Jain, P., & Krieger, J. L. (2011). Moving beyond the language barrier: the communication strategies used by international medical graduates in intercultural medical encounters. Patient Education and Counseling, 84(1), 98-104. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2010.06.022 [DOI:10.1016/j.pec.2010.06.022]
55. Karimi, K. A., & Marandi, S. S. (2019). Hidden curriculum in internet-enhanced English education: The representation of Iranian social actors in BBC learning English program. Journal of Language Horizons, 3(2), 29-55.
56. Kianpour, M., & Nasseri, L. (2015). A thematic analysis of stereotypical thoughts regarding ethnicity: The case of students at the University of Isfahan. Journal of Applied Sociology, 26(2), 59-76. https://jas.ui.ac.ir/article_18404.html?lang=en
57. Kinzler, K. D., Shutts, K., DeJesus, J., & Spelke, E. S. (2009). Accents trumps race in guiding children's social preferences. Social Cognition, 27(4), 623-634. doi: 10.1521/soco.2009.27.4.623 [DOI:10.1521/soco.2009.27.4.623]
58. Klingler, C., & Marckmann, G. (2016). Difficulties experienced by migrant physicians working in German hospitals: A qualitative interview study. Hum Resour Health, 14(1), 57-68. doi: 10.1186/s12960-016-0153-4 [DOI:10.1186/s12960-016-0153-4]
59. Lukens, J. (1978). Ethnocentric speech: Its nature and implications. 1-29. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED140378.pdf
60. Mahootian, S. (2018). Language contact and multilingualism in Iran. In A. Sedighi & P. Shabani-Jadidi (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of Persian linguistics (pp. 347-360). Oxford: Oxford University Press. [DOI:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198736745.013.14]
61. McCrae, R. R., & Terracciano, A. (2005). Universal features of personalitytraits from the observer's perspective: Data from 50 cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(3), 547-561. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.88.3.547 [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.88.3.547]
62. Mirshahidi, S. (2017). I find you attractive but I don't trust you: The case of language attitudes in Iran. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 38(2), 146-159. [DOI:10.1080/01434632.2016.1178268]
63. Mirzaei, A., & Forouzandeh, F. (2013). Relationship between intercultural communicative competence and L2-learning motivation of Iranian EFL learners. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 42(3), 300-318. [DOI:10.1080/17475759.2013.816867]
64. Mohammadian-Haghighi, F., & Norton, B. (2017). The role of English language institutes in Iran. TESOL Quarterly, 51(2), 428-438. doi:10.1002/tesq.338 [DOI:10.1002/tesq.338]
65. Nameni, A. (2020). Research into ethnocentrism and intercultural willingness to communicate of Iraqi and Iranian medical students in Iran. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 49(1), 61-85. [DOI:10.1080/17475759.2019.1708430]
66. Nameni, A. (2021). An investigation into Iranian employee's intercultural communicative competence: Does learning English as a foreign language help? Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 51(4), 361-382. [DOI:10.1080/17475759.2021.2006752]
67. Nameni, A., & Dowlatabadi, H. (2019). A study of the level of intercultural communicative competence and intercultural sensitivity of Iranian medical students based on ethnicity. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 48(1), 21-34. [DOI:10.1080/17475759.2018.1549586]
68. Neuliep, J. W. (2002). Assessing the reliability and validity of the generalized ethnocentrism scale. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 314, 201-215.
69. Neuliep, J. W. (2012). The relationship among intercultural communication apprehension, ethnocentrism, uncertainty reduction, and communication satisfaction during initial intercultural interaction: An extension of anxiety and uncertainty management (AUM) theory. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 41(1), 1-16. [DOI:10.1080/17475759.2011.623239]
70. Neuliep, J. W. (2015). Intercultural communication: A contextual approach. SAGE Publishing.
71. Neuliep, J. W. (2017a). Ethnocentrism and intercultural communication. In L. Chen (Ed.), Intercultural communication (pp. 331-348). Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter Mouton. [DOI:10.1515/9781501500060-015]
72. Neuliep, J. W. (2017b). Ethnocentrism. In Y. Kim, & K. L. McKay-Semmler, The international encyclopedia of intercultural communication (pp. 1-5). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. [DOI:10.1002/9781118783665.ieicc0030]
73. Neuliep, J. W., Chaudoir, M., & McCroskey, J. C. (2001). A cross-cultural comparison of ethnocentrism among Japanese and United States college students. Communication Research Reports, 18(2), 137-146. [DOI:10.1080/08824090109384791]
74. Neuliep, J. W., & McCroskey, J. C. (1997). The development of intercultural and interethnic communication apprehension scales. Communication Research Reports, 14(2), 145-156. [DOI:10.1080/08824099709388656]
75. Neuliep, J. W., & Speten-Hansen, K. M. (2013). The influence of ethnocentrism on social perceptions of nonnative accents. Language & Communication, 33(3), 167-176. doi:10.1016/j.langcom.2013.05.001 [DOI:10.1016/j.langcom.2013.05.001]
76. Norton, B. (1995). Social identity, investment, and language learning. TESOL Quarterly, 29(1), 9-31. [DOI:10.2307/3587803]
77. Norton, B. (1997). Language, identity, and the ownership of English. TESOL Quarterly, 31(3), 409- 429. [DOI:10.2307/3587831]
78. Norton, B. (2000). Identity and language learning: Gender, ethnicity and educational change. Harlow, UK: Longman/Pearson Education.
79. Norton, B. (2013). Identity and language learning: Extending the conversation (2nd ed.). Bristol: Multilingual Matters. [DOI:10.21832/9781783090563]
80. Norton, B. (2019). Identity and language learning: A 2019 Retrospective Account. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 75(4), 299-307. [DOI:10.3138/cmlr.2019-0287]
81. Page-Gould, E., Mendoza-Denton, R., & Tropp, L. R. (2008). With a little help from my cross-group friends: Reducing anxiety in intergroup contexts through cross-group friendship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(5), 1080-1094. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.95.5.1080 [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.95.5.1080]
82. Pandit, P. B. (1975). Linguistics and sociology, In R. Bartsch & T. Vennemann (Eds.) Linguistics and neighbouring disciplines (pp. 171-180). North-Holland.
83. Peng, F. (1974). Communicative distance. Language Science, 31, 32-38. doi:10.33675/ANGL/2021/2/5 [DOI:10.33675/ANGL/2021/2/5]
84. Penner, L. A., Blair, I. V., Albrecht, T. L., & Dovidio, J. F. (2014). Reducing racial health care disparities: A social psychological analysis. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1(1), 204-212. doi: 10.1177/2372732214548430 [DOI:10.1177/2372732214548430]
85. Pennycook, G., Cheyne, J. A., Koehler, D. J., & Fugelsang, J. A. (2013). Belief bias during reasoning among religious believers and skeptics. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20(4), 806-811. doi: 10.3758/s13423-013-0394-3 [DOI:10.3758/s13423-013-0394-3]
86. Perwaiz, S. (2007). Discerning Iran: exploring the motives for Iranian foreign policy. Cornell International Affairs Review, 1(1). doi:10.37513/ciar.v1i1.320 [DOI:10.37513/ciar.v1i1.320]
87. Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2008). How does intergroup contact reduce prejudice? Meta-analytic tests of three mediatory. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38(6), 922-934. doi:10.1002/ejsp.504 [DOI:10.1002/ejsp.504]
88. Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
89. Pishghadam, R., & Zabihi, (2012). Crossing the threshold of Iranian TEFL. Applied Research in English, 1(1), 57-71.
90. Pitterman, H., & Nowicki, S. J. (2004). A test of the ability to identify emotion in human standing and sitting postures: The diagnostic analysis of nonverbal accuracy-2 posture test (DANVA2-POS). Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 130(2), 146-162. doi: 10.3200/MONO.130.2.146-162 [DOI:10.3200/MONO.130.2.146-162]
91. Rahimi Zarchi, M. K., Jabbari, A., Hatam, N., Bastani, P., Shafaghat, T., & Fazelzadeh, O. (2018). Strategic analysis of Shiraz medical tourism industry: a mixed method study. Galen Medical Journal. 7 e1021, 10-21. [DOI:10.31661/gmj.v7i0.1021]
92. Rassouli, A., & Osam, N. (2019). English Language Education Throughout: Islamic Republic Reign in Iran: Government Policies and People's Attitudes. SAGE Open, 9(2), 1-11. [DOI:10.1177/2158244019858435]
93. Riley, G. A. (1975). Language loyalty and ethnocentrism in the Guamanian speech community. Anthropological Linguistics, 17(6), 286-292. https://www.jstor.org/stable/30027443
94. Riley, G. A. (1980). Language loyalty and ethnocentrism in the Guamanian speech community: Seven years later. Anthropological Linguistics, 22(8), 329-333. https://www.jstor.org/stable/30027493
95. Roustakhiz, B., Naderi, A. (2020). Ethnocentrism in Balochistan of Iran. Quarterly of Cultural Studies & Communication. doi: 10.22034/jcsc.2020.104421.1864
96. Sajampun, P., & Charoensukmongkol, P. (2018). The role of communicative adaptability in lowering intercultural communication apprehension of the Thai international college students. ASEAN Journal of Education, 4(2), 48-53.
97. Schmitt, D. P., Realo, A., Voracek, M., & Allik, J. (2008). Why can't a man be more like a woman? Sex differences in big five personality traits across 55 cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(1), 168-182. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.94.1.168 [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.94.1.168]
98. Schouten, B. C., & Meeuwesen, L. (2006). Cultural differences in medical communication: A review of the literature. Patient EducCouns, 64(1-3), 21-34. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2005.11.014 [DOI:10.1016/j.pec.2005.11.014]
99. Seyfi, S., & Hall, C. M. (2019). International sanctions, tourism destinations and resistive economy. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 11(1), 159-169. [DOI:10.1080/19407963.2018.1482305]
100. Seyfi, S., Hall, C. M., & Vo-Thanh, T. (2020). Tourism, peace and sustainability in sanctions-ridden destinations. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 30(2-3), 372-391. doi:10.1080/09669582.2020.1818764 [DOI:10.1080/09669582.2020.1818764]
101. Shabani, E. A., & Panahi, J. (2021). An account of teaching English to medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Academia Letters, Article 3587: 1-6. https://philpapers.org/rec/SHAAAO-19 [DOI:10.20935/AL3587]
102. Shoraka, M., & Omidi, M. R. (2002). The internet in Iran. IEEE Technology and Society Magazine, 21(1), 28-32. doi: 10.1109/44.993598 [DOI:10.1109/44.993598]
103. Sinaiee, M. (2021, July 28). Iran's parliament moves ahead with internet censorship bill. Iran International.
104. Smedley, B. D., Stith, A. Y., & Nelson, A. R. (2003). Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. The National Academies Press.
105. Soltanian, N., Ghapanchi, Z., Rezaei, S., & Pishghadam, R. (2018). Quantifying investment in language learning: Model and questionnaire development and validation in the Iranian context. Issues in Language Teaching (ILT), 7(1), 25-56.
106. Stanek, K. C., & Ones, D. S. (2018). Taxonomies and compendia of cognitive ability and personality measures relevant to industrial, work, and organizational psychology. In D. S. Ones, N. Anderson, C. Viswesvaran & H. K. Sinangil, (Eds). The SAGE handbook of industrial, work and organizational psychology (pp. 366-407). SAGE Publishing. [DOI:10.4135/9781473914940.n14]
107. Tajeddin, Z., Alemi, M. (2021). Moving from cultural ethnocentrism to enthnorelativism through the affordance of English language learning experience. In: M. Victoria & C. Sangiamchit (Eds.), Interculturality and the English language classroom (pp. 233- 262). Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-030-76757-0_9]
108. Tajeddin, Z., & Chamani, F. (2020). Foreign language education policy (FLEP) in Iran: Unpacking state mandates in major national policy documents. Journal of Teaching Language Skills (JTLS), 39(3.1), 185-215.
109. Tavakol, M., Murphy, R., & Torabi, S. (2005). A needs assessment for a communication skills curriculum in Iran. Teaching and Learning in Medicine: an International Journal, 17(1), 36-41. doi: 10.1207/s15328015tlm1701_7 [DOI:10.1207/s15328015tlm1701_7]
110. Teal, C. R., & Street, R. L. (2009). Critical elements of culturally competent communication in the medical encounter: A review and model. Social Science and Medicine, 68(3), 533-543. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.10.015 [DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.10.015]
111. TUMS International Students. (2021, May 1). Retrieved from Tehran University of Medical Sciences: https://en.tums.ac.ir/en/page/295/tums-international-students
112. Turner, R. N., Hewstone, M., & Voci, A. (2007). Reducing explicit and implicit outgroup prejudice via direct and extended contact: The mediating role of self-disclosure and intergroup anxiety. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(3), 369-388. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.93.3.369 [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.93.3.369]
113. Turner, R. N., Hewstone, M., Voci, A., & Vonofakou, C. (2008). A test of the extended intergroup contact hypothesis: the mediating role of intergroup anxiety, perceived ingroup and outgroup norms, and inclusion of the outgroup in the self. Journal of personality and social psychology, 95(4), 843-860. doi: 10.1037/a0011434 [DOI:10.1037/a0011434]
114. Van Oudenhoven, J. P., Ward, C., & Masgoret, A. M. (2006). Patterns of relations between immigrants and host societies. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(6), 637-651. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2006.09.001]
115. Voelker, R. (1995). Speaking the languages of medicine and culture. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273(21), 1639-1641. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03520450007003 [DOI:10.1001/jama.1995.03520450007003]
116. World Health Organization. (‎2010)‎. Health of migrants: the way forward: report of a global consultation, Madrid, Spain, 3-5 March 2010. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/44336
117. World Health Organization. (2015). Bridging the language divide in health. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 93(6), 365-366. http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.15.020615 [DOI:10.2471/BLT.15.020615]
118. Wrench, J. S., Corrigan, M. W., McCroskey, J. C., & Punyanunt-Carter, N. M. (2006). Religious fundamentalism and intercultural communication: The relationships among ethnocentrism, intercultural communication apprehension, religious fundamentalism, homonegativity, and tolerance for religious disagreement. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 35(1), 23-44. doi:10.1080/17475740600739198 [DOI:10.1080/17475740600739198]
119. Young, S. D., Shakiba, A., Kwok, J., & Montazeri, M. S. (2014). The influence of social networking technologies on female religious veil-wearing behavior in Iran. Cyberpsychology Behav. Soc. Netw., 17(5), 317-321. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2013.0338 [DOI:10.1089/cyber.2013.0338]
120. Zamani, A., Shams, B., & Moazzam, E. (2004). Communication skills training for physicians as a strategy for enhancing patients' satisfaction: A model for continuing education. Iranian Journal of Medical Education, 4(1/11), 15-21. http://ijme.mui.ac.ir/article-1-6-en.html

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | International Journal of Research in English Education

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb