Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2023)                   IJREE 2023, 8(3): 1-18 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Heydarian Langeroudi E, Khazaee H. Vocabulary Size and Flow Experience: Unexplored Realms of Game-Based Learning in Iranian EFL Programs. IJREE 2023; 8 (3)
URL: http://ijreeonline.com/article-1-780-en.html
Department of English Language Translation, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran
Abstract:   (1599 Views)
In the past few years, there have been many studies about how game-based learning can help people learn languages. Since little research has been conducted on games in the Iranian EFL context, a deeper study of how games affect vocabulary size and flow is needed. The current study, conducted as a quasi-experimental research design with a pre- and posttest control group structure, investigated this effect by recruiting 60 Iranian intermediate EFL learners through a convenience sampling procedure and assigning them to experimental and control groups. The researchers utilized the EF Standard English Test (EF SET) to ascertain the proficiency level of the participants. Before the treatment phase, version A of Nation and Beglar’s (2007) vocabulary size test was given to both groups, and their vocabulary sizes were measured. The experimental group then participated in an eight-week massively multiplayer online role-playing game. The control group only received traditional, ordinary instruction. After this, version B of Nation and Beglar’s test was conducted. Along with this, learners’ flow experiences in the experimental group were measured through a questionnaire adopted from Egbert (2004). A comparison of the experimental and control groups suggested a statistically significant difference between the vocabulary sizes of learners in the experimental and control groups, whereby an increase in the vocabulary sizes of learners in the experimental group was witnessed. Moreover, flow was observed in 83% of the participants in the experimental group. Implications of the study, including using games in language instruction in the Iranian EFL setting, have been considered.
Full-Text [PDF 620 kb]   (201 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special

1. Adlai-Gail, W. S. (1995). Exploring the autotelic personality [Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Chicago.].
2. All, A., Castellar, E. P. N., & Van Looy, J. (2016). Assessing the effectiveness of digital game-based learning: Best practices. Computers & Education, 92-93, 90-103. [DOI:10.1016/j.compedu.2015.10.007]
3. Al Neyadi, O. (2007). The effects of using games to reinforce vocabulary learning. In H.C.T. Marifa (Ed.), Action research and initial teacher education in the UAE (pp. 99-107). HCT Press.
4. Aslanabadi, H., & Rasouli, G. (2013). The effect of games on improvement of Iranian EFL vocabulary knowledge in kindergartens. International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities, 6(1), 186-195.
5. Assapun, S., & Thummaphan, P. (2023). Assessing the effectiveness of board game-based learning for enhancing problem-solving competency of lower secondary students. International Journal of Instruction, 16(2), 511-532. [DOI:10.29333/iji.2023.16228a]
6. Aviad-Levitzky, T., Laufer, B., & Goldstein, Z. (2019). The new computer adaptive test of size and strength (CATSS): Development and validation. Language Assessment Quarterly, 16(3), 345-368. [DOI:10.1080/15434303.2019.1649409]
7. Babakhani, A., & Tabatabaee-Yazdi, M. (2022). Digital game-based activities as a predictive power of Iranian EFL learners' willingness to communicate and cooperate. International Journal of Research in English Education, 7(4), 95-104. http://ijreeonline.com/article-1-743-en.html
8. Beglar, D. (2010). A Rasch-based validation of the vocabulary size test. Language Testing, 27(1), 101-118. [DOI:10.1177/0265532209340194]
9. Berta, R., Bellotti, F., De Gloria, A., Pranantha, D., & Schatten, C. (2013). Electroencephalogram and physiological signal analysis for assessing flow in games. IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games, 5(2), 164-175. [DOI:10.1109/TCIAIG.2013.2260340]
10. Boyle, E. A., Hainey, T., Connolly, T. M., Gray, G., Earp, J., Ott, M., & Pereira, J. (2016). An update to the systematic literature review of empirical evidence of the impacts and outcomes of computer games and serious games. Computers & Education, 94, 178-192. [DOI:10.1016/j.compedu.2015.11.003]
11. Brockmyer, J. H., Fox, C. M., Curtiss, K. A., McBroom, E., Burkhart, K. M., & Pidruzny, J. N. (2009). The development of the game engagement questionnaire: A measure of engagement in video game-playing. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(4), 624-634. [DOI:10.1016/j.jesp.2009.02.016]
12. Butler, Y. G. (2015). The use of computer games as foreign language learning tasks for digital natives. System, 54, 91-102. [DOI:10.1016/j.system.2014.10.010]
13. Caine, T. M. (2008). Do you speak global? The spread of English and the implications for English language teaching. Canadian Journal for New Scholars in Education, 1(1), 1-11. file:///C:/Users/SMA/Downloads/admin,+22-82-1-CE.pdf
14. Chapelle, C. (1998). Multimedia CALL: Lessons to be learned from research on instructed SLA. Language Learning & Technology, 2(1), 22-34. Retrieved September 20, 2023 from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/90911/
15. Chou, M. H. (2014). Assessing English vocabulary and enhancing young English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' motivation through games, songs, and stories. Education 3-13, 42(3), 284-297. [DOI:10.1080/03004279.2012.680899]
16. Chui, A. S. Y. (2006). A study of the English vocabulary knowledge of university students in Hong Kong. Asian Journal of English Language Teaching, 16, 1-23.
17. Coxhead, A. (2000). A new academic word list. TESOL Quarterly, 34(2), 213-238. [DOI:10.2307/3587951]
18. Csíkszentmihályi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. Harper and Row.
19. Csíkszentmihályi, M. (2014). Flow and the foundations of positive psychology. The collected works of Mihaly Csíkszentmihályi. Springer. [DOI:10.1007/978-94-017-9085-7]
20. deHaan, J. Reed, W., & Kuwada, K. (2010). The effect of interactivity with a music video games on second language vocabulary recall. Language Learning & Technology, 14(2), 74-94. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/45681693_The_Effect_of_Interactivity_with_a_Music_Video_Game_on_Second_Language_Vocabulary_Recall
21. Delavari Khalifehkari, G., & Pourhosein Gilakjani, A. (2022). A comparative study of effects of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) and conventional methods of instruction on intermediate EFL learners' vocabulary learning. International Journal of Research in English Education, 7(3), 94-104. [DOI:10.52547/ijree.7.3.94]
22. Derakhshan, A., & Khatir, E. D. (2015). The effects of using games on English vocabulary learning. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 2(3), 39-47. file:///C:/Users/SMA/Downloads/40-43-1-PB-1.pdf
23. Dolati, I., & Mikaili, P. (2011). Opinions related to the main reasons on Iranian students' difficulties in Spoken English proficiency. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(11), 1142-1148. http://www.ajbasweb.com/old/ajbas/2011/November-2011/1142-1148.pdf
24. Egbert, J. (2004). A study of flow theory in the foreign language classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review, 60(5), 549-586. [DOI:10.3138/cmlr.60.5.549]
25. Fairclough, N. (2014). Critical language awareness. Routledge. [DOI:10.4324/9781315845661]
26. Hainey, T., Connolly, T. M., Boyle, E. A., Wilson, A., & Razak, A. (2016). A systematic literature review of games-based learning empirical evidence in primary education. Computers & Education, 102, 202-223. [DOI:10.1016/j.compedu.2016.09.001]
27. Hsu, C. L., & Lu, H. P. (2004). Why do people play on-line games? An extended TAM with social influences and flow experience. Information & Management, 41(7), 853-868. [DOI:10.1016/j.im.2003.08.014]
28. Jackson, S. A., & Eklund, R. C. (2002). Assessing flow in physical activity: The flow state scale-2 and dispositional flow scale-2. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 24, 133-150, 2002. [DOI:10.1123/jsep.24.2.133]
29. Kalaycioglu, H. (2011). The effect of picture vocabulary games and gender on four year-old children's English vocabulary performance: An experimental investigation [Unpublished MA thesis, The Middle East Technical University].
30. Karbalaei, A., & Kord Afshari, M. (2019). The role of innovative concordnacing instruction method in improving Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary. IJREE, 4(3), 100-114. http://ijreeonline.com/article-1-197-en.html [DOI:10.29252/ijree.4.3.100]
31. Khazaee, H., & Pourhosein Gilakjani, G. (2022). Assessing the level of communicativeness of activities in Iran's FRDE-based state high school english textbooks (Prospect and Vision series). The Journal of AsiaTEFL, 19(3), 1098-1108. http://dx.doi.org/10.18823/asiatefl.2022. [DOI:10.18823/asiatefl.2022.]
32. Kiili, K., Lainema, T. (2008). Foundation for measuring engagement in educational games. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 19(3), 469-488. Waynesville, NC: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved September 19, 2023 from https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/24197/
33. Koivisto, J., & Hamari, J. (2019). The Rise of motivational information systems: A Review of gamification research. International Journal of Information Management, 45, 191-210. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2018.10.013]
34. Klasen, M., Weber, R., Kircher, T. T., Mathiak, K. A., & Mathiak, K. (2011). Neural contributions to flow experience during video game playing. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7(4), 485-495. [DOI:10.1093/scan/nsr021]
35. Krug, M. (1999). Playing tennis in the zone. Athletic Insight, 1(3), 13-20.
36. Laufer, B., & Nation, P. (1999). A vocabulary-size test of controlled productive ability. Language Testing, 16(1), 33-51. [DOI:10.1177/026553229901600103]
37. Lenhart, A., Kahne, J., Middaugh, E., Macgill, A. R., Evans, C., & Vitak, J. (2008). Teens' gaming experiences are diverse and include significant social interaction and civic engagement. Pew Internet & American Life Project.
38. Leung, Y. W., Kwong, T., Lau, M., Law, L., & Wong, E. Y. (2022). Cultural difference of flow experience in the gamified online-learning platform: an explorative study. International Journal of Smart Technology and Learning, 3(1), 88-106. [DOI:10.1504/IJSMARTTL.2022.128048]
39. Lewis, S. M. (1999). Cycling in the Zone. Athletic Insight, 1(3), 20-35.
40. Lonczak, H. S. (2019, August 28). How to measure flow with scales and questionnaires. PositivePsychology.com. https://positivepsychology.com/how-to-measure-flow-scales-questionnaires/
41. Ma, M., Oikonomou, A., & Jain, L. (2011). Serious games and edutainment applications. Springer-Verlag. [DOI:10.1007/978-1-4471-2161-9]
42. Moyles, J. R. (1989). Just playing? The role and status of play in early childhood education. Open University Press.
43. Nabizadeh Haghighi, Y., & Khazaee, H. (2021, December 8). Pedagogic tasks in Iranian intermediate EFL learning: Investigating cognitive load and willingness to communicate in convergent and divergent tasks [Conference Presentation]. 18th International TELLSI Conference Enacting English as an International Language (EIL) in Teacher Education and Language Instruction.
44. Niromand Naserkiadeh, S., & Khazaee, H. (2022, January 20). Massively multiplayer online role-playing games and willingness to communicate in English: The unspoken thread of motivation among Iranian EFL learners [Conference Presentation]. 6th International Conference on Studies of Language and Liteature of Nations (39713177505-ICLL). https://civilica.com/doc/1402545/
45. Nation, I. S. P. (2006). How large a vocabulary is needed for reading and listening? Canadian Modern Language Review, 63(1), 59-82. [DOI:10.3138/cmlr.63.1.59]
46. Nation, I. S. P., & Beglar, D. (2007). A vocabulary size test. The Language Teacher, 31(7), 9-13. http://www.jalt-publications.org/archive/tlt/2007/07_2007TLT.pdf
47. Ninaus, M., Kober, S. E., Friedrich, E. V., Dunwell, I., De Freitas, S., Arnab, S., & Neuper, C. (2014). Neurophysiological methods for monitoring brain activity in serious games and virtual environments: a review. International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 6(1), 78-103. [DOI:10.1504/IJTEL.2014.060022]
48. Nishikawa, K. A., & Jaeger, J. (2011). A computer simulation comparing the incentive structures of dictatorships and democracies. Journal of Political Science Education, 7(2), 135-142. [DOI:10.1080/15512169.2011.564915]
49. Nurweni, A., & Read, J., (1999). The English vocabulary knowledge of Indonesian university students. English for Specific Purposes, 18, 161-175. [DOI:10.1016/S0889-4906(98)00005-2]
50. Pakdaman, S., & Pourhosein Gilakjani, A. (2019). The impact of collocation activities on Iranian intermediate EFL learners' knowledge of vocabulary. IJREE, 4(4), 70-82. http://ijreeonline.com/article-1-316-en.html [DOI:10.29252/ijree.4.4.70]
51. Perttula, A., Kiili, K., Lindstedt, A., & Tuomi, P. (2017). Flow experience in game-based learning-a systematic literature review. International Journal of Serious Games, 4(1), 57-72. [DOI:10.17083/ijsg.v4i1.151]
52. Plass, J. L., Homer, B. D., & Kinzer, C. K. (2015). Foundations of game-based learning. Educational Psychologist, 50(4), 258-283. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1090277.pdf [DOI:10.1080/00461520.2015.1122533]
53. Plotnikov, A., Stakheika, N., De Gloria, A., Schatten, C., Bellotti, F., Berta, R., Fiorini, C., & Ansovini, F. (2012). Exploiting real-time EEG analysis for assessing flow in games. Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2012. (2012), 688-689. [DOI:10.1109/ICALT.2012.144]
54. Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1-6. [DOI:10.1108/10748120110424816]
55. Procci, K., Singer, A. R., Levy, K. R., & Bowers, C. (2012). Measuring the flow experience of gamers: An evaluation of the DFS-2. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(6), 2306-2312. [DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2012.06.039]
56. Qian, D. D. (1999). Assessing the roles of depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge in reading comprehension. Canadian Modern Language Review, 56(2), 282-307. [DOI:10.3138/cmlr.56.2.282]
57. Qian, D. (2002). Investigating the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and academic reading performance: An assessment perspective. Language Learning, 52, 513-536. [DOI:10.1111/1467-9922.00193]
58. Read, J. (2004). Plumbing the depths: how should the construct of vocabulary knowledge be defined. In P., Bogaards & B. Laufer (Eds.), Vocabulary in a second language (pp. 209-227). John Benjamins Publishing Company. [DOI:10.1075/lllt.10.15rea]
59. Read, J., & Chapelle, C. A. (2001). A framework for second language vocabulary assessment. Language Testing, 18(1), 1-32. [DOI:10.1177/026553220101800101]
60. Riahipour, P., & Saba, Z. (2012). ESP vocabulary instruction: Investigating the effect of using a game oriented teaching method for learners of English for nursing. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 3(6), 1258-1266. doi:10.4304/jltr.3.6.1258-1266 [DOI:10.4304/jltr.3.6.1258-1266]
61. Reinders, H., & Wattana, S. (2012). Talk to me! Games and students' willingness to communicate. In H. Reinders (Ed.), Digital games in language learning and teaching (pp. 156-188). Palgrave Macmillan. [DOI:10.1057/9781137005267_9]
62. Ritterfeld, U., Cody, M. J., & Vorderer, P. (Eds.). (2009). Serious games: Mechanisms and effects. Routledge. [DOI:10.4324/9780203891650]
63. Rollings, A. & Adams, E. (2003). Andrew Rollings and Ernest Adams on Game design. New Riders.
64. Sadeghi, K., & Ghaderi, F. (2018). EFL education in Iran. The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching, 1-7. [DOI:10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0935]
65. Sadeghi, K., & Richards, J. C. (2015). Teaching spoken English in Iran's private language schools: Issues and options. English Teaching: Practice and Critique, 14(2), 210-34. [DOI:10.1108/ETPC-03-2015-0019]
66. Sailer, M., & Homner, L. (2019). The gamification of learning: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 32(1), 77-112. [DOI:10.1007/s10648-019-09498-w]
67. Schmidt, R., Boraie, D., & Kassabgy, O. (1996). Foreign language motivation: Internal structure and external connections. University of Hawai'i Working Papers in English as a Second Language, 14(2), 33-40.
68. Schmitt, N., Jiang, X., & Grabe, W. (2011). The percentage of words known in a text and reading comprehension. The Modern Language Journal, 95(1), 26-43. [DOI:10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01146.x]
69. Schmidt, R., & Savage, W. (1992). Challenge, skill, and motivation. PASAA, 22, 14-28. [DOI:10.58837/CHULA.PASAA.22.1.2]
70. Schoonen, R., & Verhallen, M. (1998). Kennis van woorden: De toetsing van diepe woordkennis [Knowledge of words: The testing of deep word knowledge]. Pedagogische Studiën, 75, 153 -168.
71. Sørensen, B. H., & Meyer, B. (2007). Serious games in language learning and teaching: A theoretical perspective. In Proceedings of the 2007 Digital Games Research Association Conference (pp. 559-566). Tokyo. Digital Games Research Association.
72. Suh, S., Kim, S. W., & Kim, N. J. (2010). Effectiveness of MMORPG-based instruction in elementary English education in Korea: Effectiveness of MMORPG-based instruction. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26(5), 370-378. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2729.2010.00353.x]
73. Sweetser, P., & Wyeth, P. (2005). GameFlow: A model for evaluating player enjoyment in games. Computers in Entertainment (CIE), 3(3), 3-13. doi:10.1145/1077246.1077253 [DOI:10.1145/1077246.1077253]
74. Tobias, S., Fletcher, J. D., & Wind, A. (in press). Game-based learning. In M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. Elen, & M. J. Bishop (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational and communications technology (4th ed.). Springer.
75. Vermeer, A. (2001). Breadth and depth of vocabulary in relation to L1/L2 acquisition and frequency of input. Applied Psycholinguistics, 22, 217-234. [DOI:10.1017/S0142716401002041]
76. Vahdat, S., & Behbahani, A.R. (2013). The effects of video games on Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary learning. The Reading Matrix, 13, 61-71. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301340668_The_effect_of_video_games_on_Iranian_EFL_learners%27_vocabulary_learning
77. Voiskounsky, A. E., Mitina, O. V., & Avetisova, A. A. (2004). Playing online games: Flow experience. PsychNology Journal, 2(3), 259-281.
78. Weber, R., Tamborini, R., Westcott Baker, A., & Kantor, B. (2009). Theorizing flow and media enjoyment as cognitive synchronization of attentional and reward networks. Communication Theory, 19(4), 397-422. [DOI:10.1111/j.1468-2885.2009.01352.x]
79. Weibel, D., Wissmath, B., Habegger, S., Steiner, Y., & Groner, R. (2008). Playing online games against computer-vs. human-controlled opponents: Effects on presence, flow, and enjoyment. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(5), 2274-2291. [DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2007.11.002]
80. Williams, K. C., & Williams, C. C. (2011). Five key ingredients for improving student motivation. Research in Higher Education Journal, 12, 1-25. http://aabri.com/manuscripts/11834.pd
81. Wong, M. M., & Csíkszentmihályi, M. (1991). Motivation and academic achievement: The effects of personality traits and the duality of experience. Journal of Personality, 59(3), 539-574. [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1991.tb00259.x]
82. Wood, J. (2001). Can software support children's vocabulary development? Language Learning & Technology, 5(1), 166-201. Retrieved September 20, 2023 from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/90930/
83. Wouters, P., Van Nimwegen, C., Van Oostendorp, H., & Van Der Spek, E. D. (2013). A meta-analysis of the cognitive and motivational effects of serious games. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(2), 249. doi:10.1037/a0031311 [DOI:10.1037/a0031311]
84. Zeng, Y., Lu, Q., Wallace, M. P., Guo, Y., Fan, C. W., & Chen, X. (2022). Understanding sustainable development of English vocabulary acquisition: Evidence from Chinese EFL learners. Sustainability, 14(11), 6532. [DOI:10.3390/su14116532]
85. Zohrabi, M., Sabouri, H., & Behroozian, R. (2012). An assessment of strengths and weaknesses of Iranian first year high school English coursebook using evaluation checklist. English Language and Literature Studies, 2(2), 89-99. [DOI:10.5539/ells.v2n2p89]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | International Journal of Research in English Education

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb