Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2020)                   IJREE 2020, 5(2): 103-123 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Pourhosein Gilakjani A, Namaziandost E, Ziafar M. A Survey Study of Factors Influencing Iranian EFL Learners’ English Pronunciation Learning. IJREE. 2020; 5 (2)
URL: http://ijreeonline.com/article-1-395-en.html
. Department of English Language Translation, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran
Abstract:   (998 Views)
English pronunciation is one of the most important and complicated parts of foreign language teaching and learning. Due to its complexity, pronunciation has been overlooked in English language teaching. Understandable pronunciation is an important part of communicative competence. Individuals who have acceptable pronunciation can easily improve their language skills better than those who have weak pronunciation. Thus, English pronunciation is very significant for successful communication. This study investigated the factors influenced Iranian EFL learners’ English pronunciation learning. To this end, fifty Iranian EFL learners participated voluntarily in this study. A quantitative method was used as the design of this study. The researchers used a survey questionnaire as the instrument of this study. The collected data were analyzed via using frequency and percentage. The findings of this research indicated that factors such as pronunciation instruction, attitude, motivation, and error correction respectively were the most important factors that had the greatest effects on Iranian learners’ pronunciation improvement. It was also concluded that when teaching pronunciation into their classes, EFL teachers and learners should be equipped with these factors that can considerably increase their success in the correct teaching and learning of English pronunciation.
Full-Text [PDF 747 kb]   (256 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special

References
1. Ahangari, S., Rahbar, S., & Entezari Maleki, S. (2015). Pronunciation or listening enhancement: Two birds with one stone. International Journal of Language and Applied Linguistics, 1(2), 13-19.
2. Avery, P., & Ehrlich, S. (1987). Preliminary considerations in the teaching of pronunciation. London, England: TESL Center.
3. Bongaerts, T., Planken, B., & Schils, E. (1995). Can late starters attain a native accent in a foreign language? A test of the Critical Period Hypothesis. In D. Singleton & Z. Lengyel (Eds.), The age factor in second language acquisition (pp. 30-50). Multilingual Matters Ltd.
4. Bongaerts, T., Summeren, C., van Planken, B., & Schils, E. (1997). Age and ultimate attainment in the pronunciation of a foreign language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19(4), 447-465. doi: 10.1017/S0272263197004026 [DOI:10.1017/S0272263197004026]
5. Borges, L. (2014). Pronunciation beliefs and other predictors of phonological performance: A study with Brazilian ESL learners (Master's Thesis). https://docplayer.net/28244606-Pronunciation-beliefs-and-other-predictors-of-phonological-performance-a-study-with-brazilian-esl-learners.html Accessed 30 March 2020.
6. Brown, A. (1992). A survey of attitudes and teaching practices related to pronunciation teaching. Perth: AMES WA. https://books.google.com/books/about/A_Survey_of_Attitudes_and_Teaching_Pract.html?id=KKCSYgEACAAJ Accessed 30 March 2020.
7. Brown, H. D. (2000). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy (Second Edition). Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
8. Brown, H. D. (2007). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy (3rd ed.).White Plains, NY: Pearson Education.
9. Butler-Pascoe, M. E., & Wiburg, K. M. (2003). Technology and teaching English language learners. MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
10. Celce-Murcia, M., Brinton, D. M., & Goodwin, J. M. (1996). Teaching pronunciation: A reference for teachers of English to speakers of other languages. New York: Cambridge University Press. https://www.amazon.com/Teaching-Pronunciation-Reference-Teachers-Languages/dp/0521405041 Accessed 30 March 2020.
11. Celce-Murcia, M., Brinton, D., & Goodwin, J. (2000). Teaching pronunciation: A reference for teachers of English to speakers of other languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
12. Celce-Murcia, M., & Goodwin, J. M. (1991). Teaching pronunciation. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.) Teaching English as a second or foreign language (pp. 136-153). New York: Newbury House.
13. Colantoni, L., & Steele, J. (2006). Native-like attainment in the L2 acquisition of Spanish stop-liquid clusters. 7th Conference on the Acquisition of Spanish and Portuguese as First and Second Languages (pp. 59-73). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
14. Collier, V. P. (1987). The effect of age on acquisition of a second language for school. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED296580.pdf Accessed 30 March 2020.
15. Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches. London: Sage Publications, Inc.
16. Dalton-Puffer, C., Kaltenböck, G., & Smit, U. (1997). Learner attitudes and L2 pronunciation in Austria. World Englishes, 16(1), 115-128. [DOI:10.1111/1467-971X.00052]
17. Derwing, T. M., & Munro, M. J. (2015). Pronunciation fundamentals: Evidence-based perspectives for L2 teaching and research. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. [DOI:10.1075/lllt.42]
18. Derwing, T., & Rossiter, M. (2003). The effects of pronunciation instruction on the accuracy, fluency, and complexity of L2 accented speech. Applied Language Learning, 13(1), 1-17. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ669790 Accessed 30 March 2020.
19. Derwing, T. et al. (2014). Opening the window on comprehensible pronunciation after 19 Years: A workplace training study. Language Learning, 64(3), 526-548. [DOI:10.1111/lang.12053]
20. Diah, K., & Zita, R. (2006). Pronunciation 1. Surakarta: Sebelas Maret University Press.
21. Dornyei, Z. (2001). Teaching and researching motivation. London: Longman. https://archive.org/stream/ilhem_20151031_1015/%5BZolt%C3%A1n_D%C3%B6rnyei%2C_Ema_Ushioda%5D_Teaching_and_Resea_djvu.txt Accessed 30 March 2020.
22. Elliott, A. R. (1995). Field independence/dependence, hemispheric specialization, and attitude in relation to pronunciation accuracy in Spanish as a foreign Language. Modern Language Journal, 79(3), 356-371. [DOI:10.1111/j.1540-4781.1995.tb01112.x]
23. Face, T. L. (2006). Intervocalic Rhotic pronunciation by adult learners of Spanish as a second language. Selected proceedings of the 7th Conference on the Acquisition of Spanish and Portuguese as First and Second Languages (pp. 47-58).
24. Farhat, P. A., & Dzakiria, H. (2017). Pronunciation barriers and computer assisted language learning (CALL): Coping the demands of 21stcentury in second language learning classroom in Pakistan. International Journal of Research in English Education, 2(2), 53-62. doi: 10.18869/acadpub.ijree.2.2.53 [DOI:10.18869/acadpub.ijree.2.2.53]
25. Flege, J. E. (1984). The detection of French accent by American listeners. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 76(3), 692-707. [DOI:10.1121/1.391256]
26. Fraser, H. (2000). Coordinating improvements in pronunciation teaching for adult learners of English as a second language. Canberra: DETYA (Australia National Training Authority Adult Literacy Project). Retrieved from https://helenfraser.com.au/wp-content/uploads/ANTA-REPORT-FINAL.pdf
27. Gatbonton, E., Trofimovich, P., & Magid, M. (2005). Learners' ethnic group affiliation and L2 pronunciation accuracy: a sociolinguistic investigation. TESOL Quarterly, 39(3), 489-511. doi: 10.2307/3588491 https://www.jstor.org/stable/3588491 [DOI:10.2307/3588491]
28. Gilbert, J. (1984). A clear speech. Pronunciation and listening comprehension in American English. Student's manual and answer key, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
29. Granena, G., & Long, M. H. (2012). Age of onset, length of residence, language aptitude, and ultimate L2 attainment in three linguistic domains. Second Language Research, 29(3), 311-343. doi: 10.1177/0267658312461497 [DOI:10.1177/0267658312461497]
30. Ha, N. N. (2013). Using language learning strategies in pronunciation training for non-English major students (Doctoral dissertation). https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/5102/19c04304a2592cc65507f9dd8d8221f2e90a.pdf Accessed 30 March 2020.
31. Haghighi, M., & Rahimy, R. (2017). The effect of L2 minimal pairs practice on Iranian intermediate EFL learners' pronunciation accuracy. IJREE, 2(1), 42-48. [DOI:10.18869/acadpub.ijree.2.1.42]
32. http://ijreeonline.com/article-1-32-en.html doi: 10.18869/acadpub.ijree.2.1.42 [DOI:10.18869/acadpub.ijree.2.1.42]
33. Jiang, M., Green, R. J., Henley, T. B., & Masten, W. G. (2009). Acculturation in relation to the acquisition of a second language. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 30(6), 481-492. [DOI:10.1080/01434630903147898]
34. Kang, O. (2010). ESL learners' attitudes toward pronunciation instruction and varieties of English. In J. Levis & K. LeVelle (eds.), Proceedings of the 1st Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference, Iowa State University, Sept. 2009. (pp.105-118), Ames, IA: Iowa State University.
35. Kassaian, Z. (2011). Age and gender effect in phonetic perception and production. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(2), 370-376. doi:10.4304/jltr.2.2.370-376 https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/10f0/eca50e166c4c6df3d49720f67f19a7967a20.pdf Accessed 30 March 2020.
36. Kelly, G. (2000). How to teach pronunciation (J. Harmer, Ed.). England: Longman.
37. Kenworthy, J. (1987). Teaching English pronunciation. New York: Longman.
38. Kenworthy, J. (1990). Teaching English pronunciation. Harlow: Longman.
39. Khamkhien, A. (2010). Thai learners' English pronunciation competence: Lesson learned from word stress assignment. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 1(6), 757-764. doi:10.4304/jltr.1.6.757-764 [DOI:10.4304/jltr.1.6.757-764]
40. Kissling, E. (2013). Teaching pronunciation: Is explicit phonetics instruction beneficial for FL learners? The Modern Language Journal, 97(3), 720-744. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4781.2013.12029.x https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264522994_Teaching_pronunciation_Is_explicit_phonetics_instruction_beneficial_for_FL_learners [DOI:10.1111/j.1540-4781.2013.12029.x]
41. Larsen-Freeman, D. (2008). Techniques and principles in teaching (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
42. Lee, J., Jang, J., & Plonsky, L. (2015). The effectiveness of second language pronunciation instruction: A meta-analysis. Applied Linguistics, 36(3), 345-366. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/applin/amu040 [DOI:10.1093/applin/amu040]
43. Levis, J. M. (2005). Changing contexts and shifting paradigms in pronunciation teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 39(3), 369-377. doi: 10.2307/3588485 https://www.jstor.org/stable/3588485 [DOI:10.2307/3588485]
44. Liu, Y. (2008). The effectiveness of integrating commercial pronunciation software into an ESL pronunciation class. Graduate Theses and Dissertations. Paper 11716. http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/etd/11716
45. Lord, G. (2005). (How) Can we teach foreign language pronunciation? On the effects of a Spanish phonetics course. Hispania, 88(3), 557-567. doi: 10.2307/20063159 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271746523_How_Can_We_Teach_Foreign_Language_Pronunciation_On_the_Effects_of_a_Spanish_Phonetics_Course Accessed 30 March 2020. [DOI:10.2307/20063159]
46. Lord, G. (2010). The combined effects of immersion and instruction on second language pronunciation. Foreign Language Annals, 43(3), 488-503. doi:10.1111/j.1944-9720.2010.01094.x https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-Combined-Effects-of-Immersion-and-Instruction-Lord/79ef7e0723e7b3e086acf90d08e84c178fe4c814 Accessed 30 March 2020. [DOI:10.1111/j.1944-9720.2010.01094.x]
47. Major, R. C. (2007). Identifying a foreign accent in an unfamiliar language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 29(4), 539-556. doi: [DOI:10.1017/S0272263107070428]
48. Major, R. C., Fitzmaurice, S. F., Bunta, F., & Balasubramanian, C. (2002). The effects of nonnative accents on listening comprehension: Implications for ESL assessment. TESOL Quarterly, 36(2), 173-190. doi: 10.2307/3588329 https://www.jstor.org/stable/3588329 [DOI:10.2307/3588329]
49. Mayberry, R., & Lock, E. (2003). Age constraints on first versus second language acquisition: Evidence for linguistic plasticity and epigenesist. Brain and Language, 87(3), 369-384. [DOI:10.1016/S0093-934X(03)00137-8]
50. Moley, P., Bandré, P., & George, J. (2011). Moving beyond readability: Considering choice, motivation and learner engagement. Theory into Practice, 50(3), 247-253. doi: 10.1080/00405841.2011.584036 [DOI:10.1080/00405841.2011.584036]
51. Moyer, A. (1999). Ultimate attainment in L2 phonology: The critical factors of age, motivation and instruction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21(1), 81-108. doi: [DOI:10.1017/S0272263199001035]
52. Moyer, A. (2007). Do language attitudes determine accent? A study of bilinguals in the USA. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 28(6), 502-518. doi:10.2167/jmmd514.0 http://dx.doi.org10.2167/jmmd514.0 [DOI:10.2167/jmmd514.0]
53. Munro, M. J., Derwing, T. M., & Burgess, C. S. (2010). Detection of nonnative speaker status from content-masked speech. Speech Communication, 52(7-8), 626-637. [DOI:10.1016/j.specom.2010.02.013]
54. Namaziandost, E. (2017). Pronunciation problems of high school EFL students: An error analysis approach with pedagogical implication. International Journal of English Research, 3(4), 77-82. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328517536_Pronunciation_problems_of_high_school_EFL_students_An_error_analysis_approach_with_pedagogical_implication Accessed 30 March 2020.
55. Namaziandost, E., Abedi, P., & Nasri, M. (2019). The role of gender in the accuracy and fluency of Iranian upper-intermediate EFL learners'L2 oral productions. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 6(3), 1-14. http://www.jallr.com/index.php/JALLR/article/view/1018 Accessed 30 March 2020.
56. Namaziandost, E., Esfahani, F. R., & Hashemifarnia, A. (2018). The impact of using authentic videos on prosodic ability among foreign language learners. International Journal of Instruction, 11(4), 375-390. doi: 10.12973/iji.2018.11424a [DOI:10.12973/iji.2018.11424a]
57. Namaziandost, E., Nasri, M., & Ziafar, M. (2019). Comparing the impacts of various inputs (I + 1 & I-1) on pre-intermediate EFL learners' reading comprehension and reading motivation: the case of Ahvazi learners. Asian. J. Second. Foreign. Lang. Educ, 4(13), 1-20. doi:10.1186/s40862-019-0079-1 [DOI:10.1186/s40862-019-0079-1]
58. Namaziandost, E., Rahimi Esfahani, F., & Hashemifardnia, A. (2018). The effect of teaching phonological rules on English pronunciation among Iranian pre-intermediate EFL learners. European Journal of English Language Teaching, 3(3), 81-98. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.1242793
59. Nation, I. S. P., & Newton, J. (2009). Teaching ESL/EFL listening and speaking. New York: Routledge. [DOI:10.4324/9780203891704]
60. Nowacka, M. (2012). Questionnaire-based pronunciation studies: Italian, Spanish and Polish students' views on their English pronunciation. Research in Language, 10(1), 43-61. doi: [DOI:10.2478/v10015-011-0048-3]
61. Nushi, M., Jafari, R., & Golesorkhi, Z. (2019). Iranian EFL learners' beliefs towards teaching and learning of pronunciation. Journal of English language Teaching and Learning, 11(23), 221-251. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333719135_Iranian_EFL_Learners'_Beliefs_towards_Teaching_and_Learning_of_Pronunciation Accessed 30 March 2020.
62. Peerdadeh, A., & Entezamara, A. (2016). The relationship between English language learners' perceptions towards classroom oral error corrections and their pronunciation accuracy. International Journal of English Linguistics, 6(7), 1-7. doi: 10.5539/ijel.v6n7p1 [DOI:10.5539/ijel.v6n7p1]
63. Pennington, M. C., & Richards, J. C. (1986). Pronunciation revisited. TESOL Quarterly, 20(2), 207-225. doi: 10.2307/3586541 [DOI:10.2307/3586541]
64. Pishghadam, R., & Kamyabi, A. (2009). The Relationship between accent and deculturation among EFL learners in Iran. Paper presented at 7th international TELSSI conference, Yazd, Iran.
65. Pourhosein Gilakjani, A. (2011). A study on the situation of pronunciation instruction in ESL/EFL classrooms. Journal of Studies in Education, 1(1), 1-15. doi: 10.5296/jse.v1i1.924 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315035214_A_Study_on_the_Situation_of_Pronunciation_Instruction_in_ESLEFL_Classrooms Accessed 30 March 2020. [DOI:10.5296/jse.v1i1.924]
66. Pourhosein Gilakjani, A. P. (2012). A study of factors affecting EFL learners' English pronunciation learning and the strategies for instruction. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(3), 119-128. http://www.ijhssnet.com/journals/Vol_2_No_3_February_2012/17.pdf Accessed 30 March 2020.
67. Pourhosein Gilakjani, A. (2012). The significance of pronunciation in English language teaching. English language teaching, 5(4), 96-107. https://wenku.baidu.com/view/2771ad4eb8f67c1cfbd6b844.html Accessed 30 March 2020.
68. Pourhosein Gilakjani, A. (2016). What factors influence the English pronunciation of EFL learners? Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods (MJLTM), 6(2), 314-326.
69. Pourhosein Gilakjani, A. (2016). Why is English pronunciation ignored by EFL teachers in their classes? International Journal of English Linguistics, 6(6), 195-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v6n6p195 doi:10.5539/ijel.v6n6p195 [DOI:10.5539/ijel.v6n6p195]
70. Pourhossein Gilakjani, A. (2016). English pronunciation instruction: A literature review. International Journal of Research in English Education (IJREE), 1(1), 1-6. http://ijreeonline.com/article-1-21-en.html Accessed 30 March 2020.
71. Pourhosein Gilakjani, A. (2018). Teaching pronunciation of English with computer technology: A qualitative study. IJREE, 3(2), 94-114. [DOI:10.29252/ijree.3.2.94]
72. http://ijreeonline.com/article-1-119-en.html doi: 10.29252/ijree.3.2.94 [DOI:10.29252/ijree.3.2.94]
73. Pourhosein Gilakjani, A., & Ahmadi, M. R. (2011). Why is pronunciation so difficult to learn? English Language Teaching, 4(3), 74-83. doi:10.5539/elt.v4n3p74 http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/elt/article/view/11877 Accessed 30 March 2020. [DOI:10.5539/elt.v4n3p74]
74. Pourhosein Gilakjani, A. P., Leong, L. M., & Sabouri, N. B. (2012). A Study on the role of motivation in foreign language learning and teaching. I.J. Modern Education and Computer Science, 7(1), 9-16. doi: 10.5815/ijmecs.2012.07.02 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268029418_A_Study_on_the_Role_of_Motivation_in_Foreign_Language_Learning_and_Teaching Accessed 30 March 2020. [DOI:10.5815/ijmecs.2012.07.02]
75. Pourhosein Gilakjani, A., Sabouri, N. B. (2017). Advantages of using computer in teaching English pronunciation. IJREE, 2(3), 78-85. [DOI:10.18869/acadpub.ijree.2.3.78]
76. http://ijreeonline.com/article-1-67-en.html doi: 10.18869/acadpub.ijree.2.3.78 [DOI:10.18869/acadpub.ijree.2.3.78]
77. Pullen, E. (2011). The relationship between cultural identity and pronunciation of non-native speakers of English in an EFL setting. MA Thesis, the Graduate School of Education, Bilkent University.
78. Purcell, E. T., & Suter, R. W. (1980). Predictors of pronunciation accuracy: A Reexamination. Language Learning, 30(2), 271-287. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-1770.1980.tb00319.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-1770.1980.tb00319.x]
79. Reeder, J. T. (1998). English speakers' acquisition of voiceless stops and trills in L2 Spanish. Texas Papers in Foreign Language Education, 3(3), 101-108. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED427521 Accessed 30 March 2020.
80. Rossiter, M. J., Derwing, T. M., Manimtim, L. G., & Thomson, R. I. (2010). Oral fluency: The neglected component in the communicative language classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review, 66(4), 583-606. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ930356 Accessed 30 March 2020. [DOI:10.3138/cmlr.66.4.583]
81. Saito, K. (2007). The influence of explicit phonetic instruction on pronunciation in EFL settings: the case of English vowels and Japanese learners of English. The Linguistics Journal, 3(3), 17-41. http://eprints.bbk.ac.uk/id/eprint/16332 Accessed 30 March 2020.
82. Saito, K. (2011). Re-examining the role of explicit phonetic instruction in native-like and comprehensible pronunciation development: An instructed SLA approach to L2 phonology. Language Awareness, 20(1), 45-59. doi: 10.1080/09658416.2010.540326 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233015625_Examining_the_role_of_explicit_phonetic_instruction_in_native-like_and_comprehensible_pronunciation_development_An_instructed_SLA_approach_to_L2_phonology Accessed 30 March 2020. [DOI:10.1080/09658416.2010.540326]
83. Saito, K., & Lyster, R. (2012). Effects of form-focused instruction and corrective feedback on L2 pronunciation Development of/ɹ/by Japanese learners of English. Language Learning, 62(2), 595-633. [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9922.2011.00639.x]
84. Šebestová, S. (2007). Some aspects of assessing pronunciation in EFL classes. Diploma thesis. Masaryk University, Faculty of Education, Department of English Language and Literature.
85. Seddighi, S. H. (2010). An account of Iranian EFL pronunciation errors through L1 transfer. Iranian Journal of Applied Language Studies, 2(2), 197-214. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/5eb4/5b09608a0eb22123a574c07963d0e80fc49c.pdf Accessed 30 March 2020.
86. Senel, M. (2006). Suggestions for beautifying the pronunciation of EFL learners in Turkey. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 2(1), 111-125. https://www.jlls.org/index.php/jlls/article/view/27 Accessed 30 March 2020.
87. Setter, J., & Jenkins, J. (2005). State-of-the-art review article: Pronunciation. Language Teaching, 38(1), 1-17. doi: [DOI:10.1017/S026144480500251X]
88. Shankar, P. (2008). Teaching of English. New Delhi, India: APH Publishing.
89. Shively, R. L. (2008). L2 acquisition of [β], [ð], and [ɣ] in Spanish: Impact of experience, linguistic environment and learner variables. Southwest Journal of Linguistics, 27(2), 79-114.
90. Smit, U. (2002). The interaction of motivation and achievement in advanced EFL pronunciation learners. IRAL, 40(2), 89-116. doi: 10.1515/iral.2002.009 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/249930757_The_interaction_of_motivation_and_achievement_in_advanced_EFL_pronunciation_learners Accessed 30 March 2020. [DOI:10.1515/iral.2002.009]
91. Stasiak, S., & Szpyra-Kozłowska, J. (2003). The effectiveness of selected pronunciation teaching techniques. Zeszyty Naukowe PWSZ w Koninie, 1(2), 125-131.
92. Sturm, J. L. (2013). Explicit phonetics instruction in L2 French: A global analysis of improvement. System, 41(3), 654-662. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2013.07.015 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259127125_Explicit_phonetics_instruction_in_L2_French_A_global_analysis_of_improvement Accessed 30 March 2020. [DOI:10.1016/j.system.2013.07.015]
93. Syamsiah, N. (2012). The effect of delayed correlation on the pronunciation of the fourth semester students of English Department of Islamic University of Madura in the 2011/2012. Language-Edu: Journal of English Teaching and Learning, 1(1), 52-53.
94. Tanner, J. D. (2012). Factors affecting the acquisition of pronunciation: Culture, motivation, and level of instruction. All Theses and Dissertations. 3242. https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/etd/3242
95. Varasarin, P. (2007). An Action research study of pronunciation training, language learning strategies and speaking confidence. (Dissertation, Victoria University). Retrieved from http://vuir.vu.edu.au/1437/1/Varasarin.pdf
96. Vitanova, G., & Miller, A. (2002). Reflective practice in pronunciation learning. The Internet TESL Journal, 8(1). http://iteslj.org/Articles/Vitanova-Pronunciation.html
97. Wrembel, M. (2002). New perspectives on pronunciation teaching. In W. Sobkowiak and E. Waniek-Klimczak. Dydaktyka Fonetyki Języka Obcego na Poziomie Licencjackim, Neofilologia II: Zeszyty Naukowe PWSZ w Płocku, 173-183.
98. Wrembel, M. (2004). Phonological 'know that' or 'know how'? - In pursuit of determinants of second language pronunciation attainments. In W. Sobkowiak & E. Waniek-Klimczak (Eds.), Zeszyt naukowy Instytutu Neofilologii (3). Materiały z konferencji "Dydaktyka fonetyki języka obcego w Polsce" Mikorzyn k. Konina 10-12 maja 2004r (pp. 163-170). Konin: Wydawnictwo Państwowej Wyższej Szkoły Zawodowej w Koninie.
99. Zampini, M. L. (1994). The role of native language transfer and task formality in the acquisition of Spanish spirantization. Hispania, 77(3), 470-481. doi: 10.2307/344974 https://www.jstor.org/stable/344974 [DOI:10.2307/344974]
100. Zhang, Q. M. (2009). Affecting factors of native-like pronunciation: A literature review. 한국교육문제연구소제27권제2호, 33-52, 2009. http://cau.ac.kr/~edusol/see/list/Vol27-2/CAKE027-002-4.pdf Accessed 30 March 2020.
101. Zuengler, J. (1988). Identity markers and L2 pronunciation. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 10(1), 33-49. doi: [DOI:10.1017/S027226310000694X]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


© 2020 All Rights Reserved | International Journal of Research in English Education

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb